The presented analysis compares SCG users who reported that they had and had not gambled as a result of their SCG use. Comparisons were mostly based on proportions using chi-square test of independence, with post-hoc tests of proportions where necessary. Likert scales were treated as ordinal and thus non-parametric correlations (Spearman’s rho) or group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U) were conducted on these variables. Where more than two groups were compared, Kruskal-Wallis tests were employed with Mann-Whitney U-tests as post-hoc tests. Effect sizes are reported for the chi-square analyses (Φ) and an alpha of 0.05 is used throughout unless stated otherwise. Analyses were conducted using SPSS v22.(Mann-Whitney U = 29,177.5, Z = −3.02, p = 0.003), be younger (Spearman’s rho = −0.16, p < 0.001), have higher levels of education (Spearman’s rho = 0.13, p = 0.001), work full-time or not be retired (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 35.45, df = 7, p < 0.001 and post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests), to live in a one parent family with children (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 12.08, df = 5, p = 0.034 and post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests) and to have higher levels of problem gambling (Spearman’s rho = 0.28, p < 0.001). They were also more likely to engage in SCGs more frequently (Spearman’s rho between 0.09 and 0.33, all p < 0.05).
No significant differences were observed between increase or decrease of actual gambling due to SCGs and: marital status (Kruskal-Wallis χ2 = 4.27, df = 4, p = 0.370), total family household income (Spearman’s rho = 0.05, p = 0.207), main language spoken at home (Mann-Whitney U = 27,229, Z = −1.93 p = 0.053) or country of birth (Mann-Whitney U = 34,087, Z = −0.96 p = 0.339).
A notable minority lsm99 (17.9%) of SCG users thought it was likely that their experience with SCGs would increase their success at real money gambling, while 42.4% reported this was neither likely nor unlikely and 39.7% reported this was somewhat or highly unlikely. Of the SCG users, 25.7% had gambled for real money on the same type of social casino game that they have played. Of these 134 respondents, 57.5% reported that they had gambled first, with 42.5% having played the social casino game first
Of the SCG users who had gambled as a result of SCGs, 85.1% had paid money for SCGs at least once, which was significantly higher than those who had not gambled as a result of SCGs (41.7%; χ2 (1, N = 521) = 61.58, p < 0.001, Φ = 0.34. Amongst those who had paid for SCGs, 98.8% of those who had gambled as a result of SCGs had done so within the last 12 months, compared to 62.3% of respondents who had not gambled as a result of SCGs, χ2 (1, N = 261) = 40.38, p < 0.001, Φ = 0.39, and they were significantly more likely to have done so at least daily (11.6% vs 4.0%) or weekly (39.5% vs 9.1%), χ2 (4, N = 261) = 63.23, p < 0.001, Φ = 0.49. Furthermore, those who had spent money on a higher number of different SCGs per month were significantly more likely to have gambled as a result of SCGs, Spearman’s rho = −0.43, p < 0.001.
∗Indicates a significant difference between percentages in each row based on tests of proportions, all p < 0.05. The omnibus chi-square tests are reported and have two degrees of freedom.